Herein you will find links and some associated content to allow YOU to do some critical thinking..and I hope you will take the opportunity to do a bit of liberal/totalitarian/progressive thought bashing too; when the occasion arrives.
Realize that these words and critical thought are where the ballot box and the soapbox are filled.
The Constitution’s Ratification and the Founders Discussions
The Federalist Papers
The Anti-Federalist Papers
The Constitution Society
Our Documents .Gov
“The Online Library of Liberty”
Classical thinking from historical figures on the topic of Liberty and governmental roles.
Reading favorites of the Founding Fathers of our Republic
Without Intent-How Congress Is Eroding the Criminal Intent Requirement in Federal Law –
The Heritage Foundation – Special Report #77
Many criminal offenses, however, lack that kind of protection. Hundreds of federal statutory offenses, and an estimated tens of thousands of federal regulatory offenses, criminalize conduct that is not inherently wrongful. Rather, such conduct is wrongful only because it is prohibited by law, or malum prohibitum. Malum prohibitum offenses cover a broad range of conduct, such as failure to comply with specific regulatory or reporting requirements.
Unlike with crimes involving inherently wrongful conduct, the conduct itself usually does not justify the inference that a criminal defendant knew that his acts were prohibited, that he intended to violate the law, or that he had any knowledge that his conduct was wrongful in any way.
Democracy Versus Republic
These succinct definitions of what is Democracy and what is a Republic was produced by the US Army in 1928, in TM2000-25 “Citizenship”
Of special note in the “How to instruct” section of TM2000-25:
The didactic method concerning facts of history, social changes, economic development, and basic principles of our Government will be used without discussion and without argument, special emphasis being given to the fact that the United States is a Republic, not a democracy.
120. Comparative analysis. — The following comparative analysis shows the principal characteristics of the three forms of government:
Authority is derived through heredity.
People have no choice in the selection of their rulers and no voice in making of the laws.
Results in arbitrariness, tyranny, and oppression.
Attitude toward property is feudalistic.
Attitude toward law is that the will of the ruler shall control, regardless of reason or consequences.
Democracy: A government of the masses.
Authority derived through mass meeting or any other form of “direct” expression.
Results in mobocracy.
Attitude toward property is communistic — negating property rights.
Attitude toward law is that the will of the majority shall regulate, whether it be based upon deliberation or governed by passion, prejudice, and impulse, without restraint or regard to consequences.
Results in demagogism, license, agitation, discontent, anarchy.
Authority is derived through the election by the people of public officials best fitted to represent them.
Attitude toward property is respect for laws and individual rights, and a sensible economic procedure.
Attitude toward law is the administration of justice in accord with fixed principles and established evidence, with a strict regard to consequences.
A greater number of citizens and extent of territory may be brought within its compass.
Avoids the dangerous extreme of either tyranny or mobocracy.
Results in statesmanship, liberty, reason, justice, contentment, and progress.
Is the “standard form” of government throughout the world.
A republic is a form of government under a constitution which provides for the election of (1) an executive and (2) a legislative body, who working together in a representative capacity, have all the power of appointment, all power of legislation, all power to raise revenue and appropriate expenditures, and are required to create (3) a judiciary to pass upon the justice and legality of their governmental acts and to recognize (4) certain inherent individual rights.
Take away any one or more of those four elements and you are drifting into autocracy. Add one or more to those four elements and you are drifting into democracy. — Atwood.
121. Superior to all others. — Autocracy declares the divine right of kings; its authority can not be questioned; its powers are arbitrarily or unjustly administered.
Democracy is the “direct” rule of the people and has been repeatedly tried without success.
Our Constitutional fathers, familiar with the strength and weakness of both autocracy and democracy, with fixed principles definitely in mind, defined a representative republican form of government. They “made a very marked distinction between a republic and a democracy * * * and said repeatedly and emphatically that they had founded a republic.”
Madison, in the Federalist, emphasized the fact that this government was a republic and not a democracy, the Constitution makers having considered both an autocracy and a democracy as undesirable forms of government while “a republic * * * promises the cure for which we are seeking.”
In a democracy the people meet and exercise the government in person. In a republic they assemble and administer it by their respective agents. — Madison.
The advantage which a republic has over a democracy consists in the substitution of representatives whose enlightened views and virtuous sentiments render them superior to local prejudices and to schemes of injustice. — Madison.
The American form of government is the oldest republican form of government in the world, and is exercising a pronounced influence in modifying the governments of other nations. Our Constitution has been copied in whole or in part throughout the earth.
Overcriminalization and the Constitution
– Heritage Foundation Legal Memorandum #64
Abstract: Although the Constitution’s great structural principles of federalism and separation of powers are designed to guard against the abuse of governmental power and secure individual liberty, Congress routinely flouts these constitutional safeguards by enacting vague, overly broad, and other improper and unconstitutional criminal laws. Thomas Jefferson warned that “concentrating” or combining the powers of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government “in the same hands is precisely the definition of despotic government.” Yet overcriminalization invites and effectively requires prosecutors, judges, and even unelected federal bureaucrats to engage in lawmaking to determine the scope and severity of criminal punishment. In order to preserve the rights of innocent Americans, the unbridled and unprincipled growth of federal criminal statutes and regulations must be contained.